AP401 Fake Exam


answers will be posted here (eventually)

this is sorta the condensed key points, according to what I think could be potentially tested - so if you can explain most of these points, you should be fine in the exam ;)



Substance Misuse I – Drug Use and Dependence

- "some kind of case study": describe using the Zinberg model (drug, user - 'set', environment - 'setting')
- list a few points of criteria of drug dependence (ICD-10 and/or DSM IV)

Substance Misuse II – Determinants of Drug Use, Pharmacotherapies of Drug Dependence
- describe the theory of deservingness, and why it is hard for people with alcohol or drug disorders to seek quality health care
- pharmacotherapies for alcohol withdrawal, cannabis withdrawal

Substance Misuse III – Harm Minimisation Strategies
- what are the three principles of harm minimisation, with examples
- calculation of 25mg methadone using a 5mg/mL solution
- when do you give buprenorphine to a heroin user (after how long after their last heroin use)? why is that?
- "picture of prescription": is this valid? (dose not in both words and figures or something similar)
- comparison of suboxone effects (buprenorphine/naloxone) on different scenarios
- patient claims vomiting from subutex (buprenorphine) and demands a new prescription (vomiting only affects methadone - requires a new prescription anyway)
- course of action when client presents intoxicated: chance occurrence and if an ongoing problem
- success of opioid substitution treatment program (harm reduction goals)


Medication Safety


Pharmacy Nutrition


Weight Management


Infant Feeding and Special Dietary Needs
-
benefits of breastfeeding to both the mother and infant
- significance of differences between formulae (when changing/hopping)
- why is cow's milk unsuitable for infants? (when can we introduce it?)
- disadvantages of bottle feeding
- consequences of introducing solid foods earlier or later than 6 months of age
- consequences of mixing medications and food (infants and toddlers)

Immunisation
- definitions of control, elimination etc.
- practice points for packing a Cooler/'Esky'
- counselling side effects of immunisation

Dermatology I – Introduction and Psoriasis
- principles of diagnosis (physical examination and history)
- clinical presentation of psoriasis, Auspitz sign and Koebner phenomenon
- precipitating factors of psoriasis
- how to apply dithranol
- side effects to topical corticosteroids
- practice points for PUVA
- patient complains of psoriasis getting worse upon starting acitretin
- counselling points for acitretin (pregnancy, LFT, photosensitivity, cholesterol)
- class contraindication for biological/antibody therapies, what medical conditions are a contraindication in some
- brief explanation of PBS indications of biological/antibody therapies

Dermatology II – Eczema and Contact Dermatitis
-
explain the three morphological stages of eczema
- management of eczema (general, acute exacerbations and chronic)
- management of seborrhoeic dermatitis (scalp and skin)

Dermatology III – Warts and Drug Eruptions, Acne
- how to apply wart paint
- management of exanthem, urticaria, photosensitivity, erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis
- four factors of pathogenesis of acne
- clinical features and management of mild, moderate and severe acne

Wound Care
-
common acute/chronic wound presentations (leg ulcer etc.)
- assessment of a wound
- factors that affect wound healing (medical conditions, other factors)
- properties of the 'ideal dressing'
- when not to use certain dressings (infection, surface of foot, level of exudate, thyroid problems etc.)

Paediatrics Pain/Common Paediatric Conditions
- pain assessment in children (non-verbal clues, various scales)
- paediatric dose of paracetamol
- benefits of using tramadol
- know the summary at the end of the lecture

Coughs and Colds/Cystic Fibrosis
- WCH approach to treating the common cold in children <2yrs
- use of nasal decongestants
- what to avoid when treating the common cold
- treatment of PA eradication/colonisation
- why azithromycin is use in CF
- pancreatic insufficiency
- liver disease, CF-related diabetes, bone health, reproduction

Wound Care Exercise


Introduction to Complementary Medicines
- know the three CAMs in the tutorial questions (echinacea, ginkgo, St John's Wort)

Common Complementary Medicines - Naturopathy
- know St John's Wort, Vitex, Paeonia (White Peony), Shatavari

Men’s Health
-
treatment options for prostate cancer (including watchful waiting)
- why men are at an increase risk for non-gender specific diseases (which you should also list)
- barriers for men to seek help/health services
- what psychological factors and other medical conditions are gay men more likely to experience

Cancer Introduction
- what kind of cells are affected during anti-cancer therapy
- common cancers for males and females
- describe trends in cancer incidence (effect of prostate screening)
- signs and symptoms of prostate cancer
- PSA testing and prostate cancer (and why it can be inaccurate: age etc)
- types of cancer screening in Australia

Cancer Case Studies
- rationale of management of tumour lysis syndrome
- complications of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, treatment of acute and delayed N/V (how crucial is it to treat?)
- when to use protocol and prn use of G-CSF, common side effect and why we shouldn't use ibuprofen to treat
- why is mucositis important to prevent
- prevention and treatment of mucositis
- supportive therapy of cancer (identify possible interactions with chemotherapy)
- explain to the patient why supportive therapy is important with cancer treatment

Skin Cancer
- treatments for non-melanoma skin cancers and melanomas
- skin cancer risk factors
- strategies for preventing skin cancer
- chemoprevention of skin cancer
- early detection of skin cancer

Urinary Incontinence
- explain the types of incontinence (urge, stress, overflow, functional), including cause, what receptors to target, pharmacotherapy
- what are some potentially reversible causes of incontinence (DIAPPERS)
- medications that may cause incontinence

Bioequivalence and Generic Medicines
-
explain what a generic medicine is
- when and why conduct a bioequivalence study
- how the rate of dissolution and changes in particle size can affect the need for a bioequivalence test
- what pharmacokinetic markers are important in a bioequivalence test
- why conduct a balance two-way cross-over study? (some patients start with generic A and others start with generic B)
- what is the amount of leeway allowed for mean ratio and 90% CI when judging whether two medications are bioequivalent, what do we do if the mean ratio or 90% CI is outside of this range
- consequences of switching from one generic to another

Medicines Scheduling in Australia
- what the NDPSC considers during decision making of scheduling medicines
- process of downscheduling (how long must drug be on market etc)
- basic criteria for upscheduling (pharmacists not counselling appropriately, changes in consumer behaviours)
- which schedule is a new therapeutic substance put on

Forensic Pharmacy – Legislative Overview, Privacy Principles
- section 33 authority: what are some exceptions, including prescribing without an authority at all
- how long can we legally supply someone with an S8 drug for? (what about if unknown patient or prescriber)
- some kind of situation involving disclosure of personal information, what is the decision process of knowing if it is ok to disclose